Acetylene

A colorless gas used under compression to produce high temperatures when mixed with air or oxygen.

Bezel

A type of setting in which an object is held in place by a snug-fitting metal collar. The top edge of the collar is usually bent over the object to further secure it.

Binding wire

A soft iron wire used to hold joints and pieces of metal in the desired position during soldering operations.

Brake

A machine for bending sheet metal.

Burnishing

Smoothing and polishing metal surfaces by rubbing them with a hardened steel or stone burnisher. This non-abrasive process creates a smooth surface by rubbing the irregularities out of the metal’s surface.

Butt joint

An edge-to-edge fit between two pieces of metal.

Cabochon

A cut of stone generally having a domed top and flat bottom.

Capillary attraction

The force that causes a liquid to be raised against a vertical surface, or pulled into small crevices.

Dapping

A method of pushing out hollows in metal by punching it into a dapping block or die; also adaptable for making hollow beads.

Dapping punch

A punch with a spherical work tip. It is used to form domed pieces from discs of flat sheet metal. The metal is tapped into a steel dapping block that has hemispherical recesses.

Drawing

The process of reducing the size of wire by passing it through a drawplate.

Embossing

Pressing or imprinting a pattern in relief from the back or inside of a sheet of metal.

Epoxy

Any of various resins capable of forming tight, cross-linked polymer structures characterized by toughness, strong adhesion, and corrosion resistance. Commonly used as a two-part adhesive.

Fillet

The bulge formed when excess solder is used to join two pieces of metal at an angle.

Findings

Commercial or handmade fittings or fastenings used to attach jewelry to the wearer: clasps, catches, earring posts, pin assemblies, etc.

Fire brick

Refractory bricks made specailly for use in high temperature applications

Fire scale

An oxide of copper that is brought on by overheating copper-bearing alloys in an open atmosphere. Firescale is tougher than other oxides and not removed by pickling.

Flux

A liquid, granular, or paste material (usually boxax-based) used to form a coating that protects metal from oxidizing during soldering and casting processes. This keeps the metal clean of oxides that inhibit the flow of molten metals such as solder.

Forging

A process using hammers and an anvil or steel stakes. From a given shape or mass of metal, the material is redistributed by controlled hammer blows to create the desired form.

Hard soldering

(also silver soldering) Joining metal together by using silver solder which is an alloy of silver, copper and brass or copper and zinc (different solders have different melting points). Hard soldering is used for metals that can withstand high temperatures, and where strength is necessary. It is impossible to use hard solder on work which has already been soft soldered. Three basic grades of silver solder available: hard, medium, and easy.

Jump ring

The common name for a small circle of wire.

Lamination

The bonding of several layers of metal.

Mandrel
A tapered steel form used to support metal as it is being formed.

Planishing

Smoothing metal with the blows of a planishing hammer while supporting the metal over a steel stake or anvil. The metal is generally worked in a systematic path of overlapping blows to create a structure of uniform thickness. Planishing hammer heads have one flat face and one face that is slightly domed.

Plating

An electrochemical process for depositing metallic ions onto an electrically conductive surface.

Punch

Steel rods with variously shaped faces for repousse, dapping, cutting, or chasing work.

Reticulation

A metal surface texture caused by heat. The texture develops just at the melting point. Cooling and the resulting shrinkage pulls the metal’s surface into a wrinkled cross section. Certain alloys of silver are formulated to enhance this process.

Riffler files

Files having specially shaped ends used where common files will not reach.

Ring-size set

A group of rings manufactured in standard sizes for fitting.

Rolling mill

A machine having two horizontal steel rollers through which metal is passed under pressure to decrease its thickness.

Roll printing

The process of texturing metal by rolling sheet metal and a patterned material through a rolling mill.

Scotch stone

An abrasive stone used with water for sharpening tools and removing scratches from work.

Soft solder

A lead alloy used for soldering, which melts at about 350° F. Soft solder will ruin silver when if the heat is raised above 800° F. The alloy of 50 Pb/50 Sn is best for art metal.

Solder

A metallic alloy used to join metals. Solder melts when heat is applied, then re-hardens as it cools. Soft solder contains lead in an alloy with tin an melts at about 350° F. Hard solder may be either silver alloyed with brass or gold alloyed with silver; its melting range is 1175° F to 1400° F.

Soldering

Joining of metal pieces with an alloy with a lower melting point than that of the pieces being joined.

Sterling silver

(92.5 Ag/7.5 Cu, mp 1650° F) A silver alloy with proportions fixed by law, which never vary and must be stamped sterling. It is harder and less malleable than pure silver, so it is better for art jewelry.

Stoning

Grinding an object with a flat emery stone while holding it under running water; especially used in married metal and enameling.

Sweating

Joining two flat pieces of metal together by melting solder first on one piece of metal stacking the pieces and then re-heating them until the solder re-flows.

Viscosity

The measure of a liquid’s ability to flow.

Welding

Uniting metallic parts by heating and allowing the metals to flow together.

study guide for 240 Quiz 2