Abrasives

Natural and synthetic materials in fine granular form incorporated in buffing compounds and attached to cloth or paper. Abrasives are generally sold in various grades from very coarse to very fine. Paper and cloth-backed abrasives may be identified by a numerical system (coarsest -50 - 80 - 180 - 240 - 320 - 400 - 600 - 1000 1500 - finest). Not all abrasives are identified by number, however.

Acid resist

(also resist) Any agent that will resist the corrosive action of acid, used mainly in etching. Some of these are: asphaltum, varnish, beeswax, dental wax, and commercial resists.

Alloy

The result of combining two or more metals, or a metal and a chemical element. For example, sterling silver is an alloy composed of pure silver and copper.

Aluminum

(Al, mp 1220° F) A bluish, silver-white metal, noted for lightness and resistance to oxidation. Usually this metal is sold in alloys designed to improve different aspects of the metal, such as its ability to be anodized, or its strength. A special aluminum solder and flux must be used when soldering.

American Standard Gauge

(also Brown and Sharpe Gauge) A flat disk of metal with notches graduated in size and numbered 1 (thick) to 36 (thin). Most non-ferrous metals are measured using this gauge.

Annealing

A heat treatment of metal that realigns its crystalline structure to its natural, more malleable state. Annealing also removes stresses created in manipulation during the work process such as bending, raising, forging, rolling, etc.

Annealing pan

A circular pan that supports the workpiece while annealing. These pans are usually filled with pea pumice and designed to be rotated as heat is applied.

Anodizing

The electrochemical application of an oxide film over aluminum causing its surface to become harder, abrasion and corrosion-resistant, and acceptant to dyes .

Anvil

Usually a heavy supporting surface over which metal is hammered. Anvils have a traditional form composed of a squarish base, flat top, and tapered horn.

Beaker

A cylindrical heat-proof glass container for warming liquids.

Bench pin
A wedge-shaped block of hardwood attached to a bench to support work while sawing or filing.

Bench plate

A thick slab of hardened steel used to support metal during flattening and texturing processes.

Bevel

The angle that one surface makes with another when they are not at right angles.

Brass

An alloy of copper and zinc in variable proportions which is commonly reddish yellow to rosy orange in color. Some common alloys of brass are: yellow brass (65 Cu/35 Zn, mp 1660° F), red brass (85 Cu/15 Zn, mp 2200° F).

Bronze

(Cu 90/Sn 10, mp 2250° F) A brownish red-yellow alloy of copper and tin.

Brushing flame

A large natural gas flame with compressed air added until there is no blue cone. This large bushy flame is most often used to anneal or gradually heat metal.

Burr

(1) A sharp-tipped projection.
(2) A rotary steel cutting tool generally used in a flexible shaft machine.

Chasing Hammer
a lightweight hammer with a springy pistol-grip handle, and a head that has one large circular striking surface (used for striking chasing punches), and a ball peen.

Coloring

Generic term refering to the natural, chemical, or heat patination of metal. Oxidation, plating, and torches are a few of the methods used to create these colorations.

Constructed

(also fabricated) Assembled of one or more elements to make a finished piece. Generally indicates that the work involves hand tools and fitting as opposed to forms created entirely by forging, casting, or electroforming.

Copper

(Cu, mp 1981° F) A metallic element reddish in color, ductile, malleable, and very tenacious. A good conductor of heat and electricity. Cold rolled sheet is best for art metal.

Copper tongs

Tool used for picking up hot metal during annealing and quenching operations, and to take workpieces in and out of the pickel without copper plating.

Cross peen

A wedge-like hammer face used to forge or raise metal. In practice, the blows of the cross peen cause the metal to move perpendicularly to the peen.

Dead blow hammer
A soft-faced hammer containing lead or steel shot to eliminate rebound and increase energy transfer. Used to flatten or shape metal without bouncing or marring.
Drill and wire gage
A tool for measuring the diameter of drill bits and wire. Consists of a flat sheet of metal with gradated and numbered holes (usu. 1-60).

Drill bit

A helically grooved steel tool used to cut holes. Bits are generally used in a hand brace, lathe, drill press, or flexible shaft.

Drill index
A set of gradated drill bits, usually boxed with a rack to keep them in order.
Drill press
A upright electric drilling machine in which the bit is applaied to the work by a hand lever.

Ductile

Capable of being drawn out, stretched or hammered thin.

Etching

The process of removing metal using through chemical processes. Usually, acid resists are used to mask off certain areas of the metal to develop surface texture or patterns,

Ferrous

Metals or alloys derived from iron.

File

A hardened steel tool having ridged or tooth-like surfaces for cutting away metal. Files are purchased in the length and cross section suited to a particular purpose.

Finishing

The final treatment of a surface, usually by means of filing, abrasion, or polishing.

Flexible shaft machine

A machine with a small, high speed motor, a flexible, enclosed drive shaft, and a hand piece with a chuck for holding carving and abrasive tools. Generally used for small-scale grinding, polishing, and drilling.

Foil

Very thin sheet metal; used especially in enameling procedures.

Heat treating

The application of heat to metal to anneal, harden, or temper.

Ingot

A block or convenient cast shape that will be further processed by extruding, rolling, forging, or additional casting.

Jacobs chuck

A device used to hold drill bits during drilling operations. It has that has three adjustable, self-centering jaws which are adjusted by turning the toothed outside ring with a chuck key.

Leaf

Metal that has been thinned to from 1/8000th to 1/10000th mm. Glued to surfaces to give a precious metallic look to non-precious materials.

Liver of sulfur

Potassium sulfide. Often dissolved in water as a solution for oxidizing or coloring metal.

Malleability

A metal’s ability to withstand being rolled or hammer-formed without cracking or breaking.

Metal fatigue

Fissures caused by prolonged or repeated overheating while soldering, by repeated cycles of heating and cooling, or by repeated flexing of the metal.

Millimeter

A unit of measure equal to .0001 meter or .04 inch. Also the standard measure for the size of precious stones.

Mordant

Commercially prepared corrosive solutions used in etching. These solutions are safer than an acid etch as they will not burn like acid.

Needle file

Small files of various shapes used for fine work.

Nickel or Nickel Silver

A hard, dense, silver white metal containing 65% copper, 18% nickel, and 17% zinc.

Non-ferrous

Metals without iron in their composition.

Oxide

A chemical compound of metal united with oxygen.

Patina

The coloring of metals through natural aging and oxidation, or through deliberate chemical coloring of the metal’s surface.

Peen

A ball, wedge, or cone-shaped strking surface of a hammer.

Pickle

A water and acid solution used as a dip or soak to clean metal of scale, oxides, and flux. The workpiece is usually pickled after soldering or annealing.

Pickling

A means of removing oxides, old flux, and other stains from metal through immersion in a solution of acid and water.

Pin vise

A tool used to firmly hold small cylindrical objects such as wire or cutting burrs.

Plastic or Plasticity
The property of metals that allows them to be worked without rupturing. Plasticity allows malleability and ductility.
Planishing hammer
A lightweight hammer witha straight handle and two highly polished striking surfaces (one flat and one slightly curved) used to finish forged surfaces.

Pumice

A volcanic stone used in lump and powdered form as an abrasive or as a heat-reflective material for supporting pieces being annealed or soldered. Finely powdered pumice may also be used as a binder in pitch.

Quenching

To suddenly submerge a piece of hot metal in a fluid as in cleaning or heat treating.

Quenching pan

A water bath used in annealing operations for rapidly cooling copper based metals.

Rasp

A coarse file that cuts by means of raised points rather than intersecting rows of straight ridges.

Rawhide Mallet
A lightweight hammer made of dried, untanned leather rolled into a cylinder and attached to a straight wooden handle. Used to flatten and shape metal, and to strike steel punches.

Reamer

A conical tool with multiple cutting edges used to re-shape or enlarge curcular holes in sheet metal.

Ring clamp

A hand-held wooden clamp used to grasp objects too small to comfortably hold by hand. The clamp is usually braced against the bench pin.

Rivet

A small pin or tube-like fastener used to secure jewelry components. Rivets are generally used where solder cannot be applied.

Rod

A cylinder of metal circular in cross-section & larger than .325 in diameter.

Scribe

A narrow, pointed tool used to scratch or mark metal.

Sheet

Metal that has been rolled into a broad flat plane thinner from .25 to .006in measured with a Brown & Sharpe gage.

Silver

(Ag, mp 1761° F) Pure silver free from impurities is called fine silver. It is very soft and pliable.

Steel wool

A bat of very thin steel wire used as an abrasive. Available in 0, 00, 000, and 0000 or coarse, medium, fine, and extra fine.

Tang

The short, tail-like end of a file or graver that is fitted with a handle.

Vise

A two-jawed tool used as a clamping device. Most vises have one fixed jaw and the second jaw mounted on a threaded shaft. Vises may be hand-held or bench-mounted.

Wire

A cylinder of metal circular in cross-section & smaller than .325 in diameter.

Work hardening

The hardening of metal by the molecular compression of bending, rolling, twisting, or hammering.

study guide for 240 Quiz 1